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关于瑞都

江(jiang)苏(su)瑞(rui)都测(ce)绘有(you)限公司原系盐城市盐都区(qu)国(guo)土局下属事业单位,2003年(nian)5月根(gen)据省、市有(you)关文件精神进行整体(ti)改(gai)制成(cheng)立盐城市新都土地勘测(ce)有(you)限公司,2012年(nian)更名为江(jiang)苏(su)瑞(rui)都测(ce)绘有(you)限公司。

我公司现有职工80人,其中测(ce)绘(hui)(hui)及相关专(zhuan)业技术人员66人,注册测(ce)绘(hui)(hui)师5人,通过不断加(jia)强人才引进和队伍(wu)建设,公司已(yi)经初步打造出了(le)一支执业操守过硬(ying)、业务(wu)(wu)技术水(shui)平较强的测(ce)绘(hui)(hui)专(zhuan)业人才队伍(wu),有效保障了(le)成果(guo)质量(liang),建立了(le)"服务(wu)(wu)让(rang)客(ke)户(hu)称(cheng)心、质量(liang)让(rang)客(ke)户(hu)放心"的良(liang)好机制。

公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)下(xia)设(she)(she)测(ce)绘工程部(bu)、国土事(shi)业部(bu)、质量技(ji)术(shu)部(bu)、市场经(jing)营部(bu)、财(cai)务部(bu)、办公(gong)(gong)室(shi)(shi)等部(bu)门(men),部(bu)门(men)设(she)(she)置合(he)理,职(zhi)责分(fen)明(ming);现有办公(gong)(gong)用房(fang)2600余(yu)平(ping)方(fang)米(mi),拥有标准(zhun)机房(fang)、大(da)小会(hui)议室(shi)(shi)、标准(zhun)档案室(shi)(shi)、仪器(qi)库房(fang)等各类办公(gong)(gong)用房(fang);全(quan)站仪、GPS、水准(zhun)仪、测(ce)距(ju)仪、测(ce)深仪、地(di)下(xia)管道探测(ce)仪、水位(wei)计、声速仪、验流计等专业测(ce)绘仪器(qi)设(she)(she)备先进;南方(fang)CASS、arcgis、mapinfo、地(di)理信息处理软件及地(di)理信息系统平(ping)台(tai)软件等各类专业软件齐全(quan)。公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)固定(ding)资产投(tou)入累计已超3000多万(wan)元(yuan),今后还将加大(da)投(tou)入,以满足公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)不断发展(zhan)的需求。

公司主要从(cong)事不动产测(ce)绘、工(gong)程测(ce)量(liang)和地(di)(di)(di)理(li)信息系(xi)统维护等工(gong)作(zuo),同时拥有土地(di)(di)(di)规划设计(ji)、土地(di)(di)(di)整(zheng)理(li)及土地(di)(di)(di)登记代理(li)资质,可以为客户提(ti)供地(di)(di)(di)籍、房(fang)产、工(gong)程测(ce)量(liang)、土地(di)(di)(di)规划、土地(di)(di)(di)整(zheng)理(li)及登记代理(li)等多(duo)层次多(duo)方位的测(ce)绘、咨询等技(ji)术(shu)服务。

经过全(quan)体(ti)瑞都人多年(nian)的努(nu)力,今后我们还(hai)将坚持以 "质量至上(shang),服务(wu) "为(wei)宗旨,依法(fa)测绘(hui),严格遵守测绘(hui)法(fa)、公司法(fa)、合同法(fa)以及土地管理法(fa)等(deng)相关法(fa)律(lv)法(fa)规(gui),努(nu)力为(wei)广大(da)客户提供优(you)质高效的服务(wu)。

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工(gong)程测量用到的仪(yi)器(qi)有哪些(xie)?

摄(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)经(jing)纬(wei)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)  由摄(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)机(ji)(ji)和(he)(he)经(jing)纬(wei)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)组(zu)装(zhuang)而成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)供(gong)地(di)(di)面(mian)摄(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)野外(wai)(wai)作业用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)器(qi)(qi)(qi)。摄(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)机(ji)(ji)上(shang)有(you)(you)物镜、暗箱、承片(pian)框(kuang)、检(jian)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)器(qi)(qi)(qi)。在承片(pian)框(kuang)上(shang)装(zhuang)有(you)(you)精(jing)密的(de)(de)(de)(de)框(kuang)标(biao)。经(jing)纬(wei)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)用(yong)(yong)来测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)定(ding)摄(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)站点(dian)和(he)(he)检(jian)查(cha)点(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)坐(zuo)标(biao),并确(que)定(ding)主(zhu)光(guang)(guang)(guang)轴(zhou)方向。主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)用(yong)(yong)于地(di)(di)形和(he)(he)非(fei)地(di)(di)形摄(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)。 立(li)体(ti)坐(zuo)标(biao)量(liang)(liang)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)  摄(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)中(zhong)用(yong)(yong)于测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)定(ding)立(li)体(ti)像(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)上(shang)同名点(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)像(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)片(pian)平面(mian)直角坐(zuo)标(biao)和(he)(he)坐(zuo)标(biao)差(视差)的(de)(de)(de)(de)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)器(qi)(qi)(qi)。由观(guan)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong),导轨系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong),像(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)片(pian)盘(pan),量(liang)(liang)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)和(he)(he)照明设备(bei)等(deng)部分组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)。有(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)(de)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)器(qi)(qi)(qi)有(you)(you)自(zi)动(dong)坐(zuo)标(biao)记(ji)录装(zhuang)置,还可(ke)(ke)直接(jie)获(huo)得计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)使用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)穿孔纸带(dai),或配有(you)(you)自(zi)动(dong)拍摄(she)(she)(she)(she)所量(liang)(liang)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)像(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)点(dian)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)像(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)装(zhuang)置。主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)用(yong)(yong)于解析空(kong)中(zhong)三角测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)和(he)(he)地(di)(di)面(mian)立(li)体(ti)摄(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)加密像(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)控点(dian)。 立(li)体(ti)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)  航(hang)空(kong)摄(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)全能(neng)(neng)法测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)器(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)统(tong)称(cheng)。是摄(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)内业成(cheng)(cheng)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)器(qi)(qi)(qi)。其结构(gou)原理(li)是以(yi)(yi)摄(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)过程的(de)(de)(de)(de)几何(he)反转(zhuan)为(wei)基(ji)础。由投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)、量(liang)(liang)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)、观(guan)察系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)和(he)(he)绘(hui)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)。仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)器(qi)(qi)(qi)按(an)投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)方式分为(wei)光(guang)(guang)(guang)学投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)、机(ji)(ji)械投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)和(he)(he)光(guang)(guang)(guang)学机(ji)(ji)械投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)三种,按(an)使用(yong)(yong)范(fan)围(wei)分,有(you)(you)专为(wei)地(di)(di)面(mian)立(li)体(ti)摄(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)经(jing)纬(wei)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)配套的(de)(de)(de)(de)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)器(qi)(qi)(qi),也有(you)(you)既可(ke)(ke)供(gong)航(hang)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)成(cheng)(cheng)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)又可(ke)(ke)供(gong)地(di)(di)面(mian)摄(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)成(cheng)(cheng)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)全能(neng)(neng)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)器(qi)(qi)(qi);有(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)(de)限于测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu),有(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)(de)还能(neng)(neng)用(yong)(yong)于空(kong)中(zhong)三角测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)。目前,发展的(de)(de)(de)(de)趋势是主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)结构(gou)趋于简单,但增加各种外(wai)(wai)围(wei)设备(bei),如(ru)自(zi)动(dong)坐(zuo)标(biao)记(ji)录装(zhuang)置,正(zheng)(zheng)射(she)投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)装(zhuang)置、数(shu)(shu)控绘(hui)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)桌等(deng),以(yi)(yi)扩大使用(yong)(yong)范(fan)围(wei),提高工作效率。另外(wai)(wai),解析测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)也可(ke)(ke)归于全能(neng)(neng)法测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)器(qi)(qi)(qi),它(ta)由带(dai)有(you)(you)反馈(kui)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)高精(jing)度立(li)体(ti)坐(zuo)标(biao)量(liang)(liang)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)、电子(zi)(zi)计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)、数(shu)(shu)控绘(hui)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)桌、控制台及相应的(de)(de)(de)(de)软件组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)。新(xin)型解析测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)可(ke)(ke)以(yi)(yi)联机(ji)(ji)或脱机(ji)(ji)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu),其人机(ji)(ji)对(dui)话的(de)(de)(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)字(zi)(zi)摄(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)、信息库、图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)解系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)用(yong)(yong)于地(di)(di)籍(ji)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)和(he)(he)空(kong)中(zhong)三角测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang),可(ke)(ke)获(huo)取数(shu)(shu)字(zi)(zi)地(di)(di)面(mian)模型、断面(mian)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)、进行(xing)地(di)(di)面(mian)摄(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)以(yi)(yi)及修测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)更新(xin)地(di)(di)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)等(deng)。 正(zheng)(zheng)射(she)投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)  将(jiang)具(ju)有(you)(you)倾斜(xie)和(he)(he)地(di)(di)面(mian)起伏的(de)(de)(de)(de)中(zhong)心投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)像(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)片(pian)变换成(cheng)(cheng)正(zheng)(zheng)射(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)像(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)摄(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)专用(yong)(yong)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)器(qi)(qi)(qi)。正(zheng)(zheng)射(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)像(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)具(ju)有(you)(you)成(cheng)(cheng)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)快速、信息丰(feng)富、直观(guan)易(yi)识等(deng)特(te)点(dian),正(zheng)(zheng)射(she)投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)一般分光(guang)(guang)(guang)学投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)和(he)(he)电子(zi)(zi)投(tou)(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)两类,可(ke)(ke)以(yi)(yi)联机(ji)(ji)或脱机(ji)(ji)作业,制作正(zheng)(zheng)射(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)像(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)图(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)。
阅读详情

2

2018-4

什么是测量(liang)标志?

 测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志(survey mark)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)定(ding)(ding)(ding)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)位(wei)(wei)(wei)置的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)石(shi)(shi)、觇(chan)(chan)(chan)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)以(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)及其(qi)他用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)于(yu)(yu)(yu)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)记(ji)物的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)通(tong)称(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)。是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)绘(hui)(hui)部(bu)门在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)时(shi)(shi)建(jian)立和(he)(he)(he)(he)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)后留存在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)、地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)下或(huo)(huo)者(zhe)建(jian)筑物上(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)各种(zhong)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志。每(mei)一(yi)(yi)个测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志都(dou)(dou)经过 的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、计(ji)(ji)算,求出它在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)上(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)平(ping)面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)位(wei)(wei)(wei)置和(he)(he)(he)(he)海(hai)拔高程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)数据。       建(jian)国以(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)来(lai),测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)绘(hui)(hui)部(bu)门在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)全(quan)国建(jian)立了几十万座 性(xing)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志,包括(kuo)各等(deng)级的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)三(san)(san)(san)(san)(san)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、基(ji)(ji)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、重(zhong)力(li)(li)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、天(tian)(tian)文(wen)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、水(shui)准(zhun)(zhun)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)木质(zhi)(zhi)觇(chan)(chan)(chan)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)、钢(gang)质(zhi)(zhi)觇(chan)(chan)(chan)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)和(he)(he)(he)(he)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)石(shi)(shi)、全(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)卫(wei)星(xing)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)以(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)及用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)于(yu)(yu)(yu)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)形(xing)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)图、工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、形(xing)变测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)籍测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、境界测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)绘(hui)(hui)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)固(gu)定(ding)(ding)(ding)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志和(he)(he)(he)(he)海(hai)底大地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)设施,是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)广大测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)绘(hui)(hui)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)者(zhe)辛勤劳(lao)动的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)结(jie)果。       测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志分(fen)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei) 性(xing)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志和(he)(he)(he)(he)临时(shi)(shi)性(xing)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志。 性(xing)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)指(zhi)(zhi)各等(deng)级的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)三(san)(san)(san)(san)(san)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、基(ji)(ji)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、军(jun)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、重(zhong)力(li)(li)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、天(tian)(tian)文(wen)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)、水(shui)准(zhun)(zhun)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)和(he)(he)(he)(he)全(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)卫(wei)星(xing)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)木质(zhi)(zhi)觇(chan)(chan)(chan)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)、钢(gang)质(zhi)(zhi)觇(chan)(chan)(chan)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)和(he)(he)(he)(he)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)石(shi)(shi)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志,以(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)及用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)于(yu)(yu)(yu)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)形(xing)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)图、工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)和(he)(he)(he)(he)形(xing)变测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)固(gu)定(ding)(ding)(ding)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志和(he)(he)(he)(he)海(hai)底大地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)设施。临时(shi)(shi)性(xing)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)指(zhi)(zhi)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)绘(hui)(hui)单(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)过程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)中设置和(he)(he)(he)(he)使(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong),工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)结(jie)束后不需要长期(qi)保(bao)(bao)存的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志和(he)(he)(he)(he)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)记(ji),如测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)站点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)木桩、活动观(guan)(guan)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)、测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)旗、测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)杆(gan)、航空摄影(ying)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志、在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)或(huo)(huo)建(jian)(构(gou))筑物上(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)记(ji)等(deng)。       性(xing)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志无(wu)论(lun)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)建(jian)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)上(shang)(shang),还是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)下或(huo)(huo)者(zhe)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)建(jian)筑物上(shang)(shang),都(dou)(dou)属于(yu)(yu)(yu) 保(bao)(bao)护(hu)范围(wei)。   三(san)(san)(san)(san)(san)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)指(zhi)(zhi)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)球(qiu)(qiu)表面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)上(shang)(shang),按测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)规范的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)要求选定(ding)(ding)(ding)一(yi)(yi)系列的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),以(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)这(zhei)些(xie)(xie)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)顶点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)三(san)(san)(san)(san)(san)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)形(xing)互相(xiang)联接在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)一(yi)(yi)起(qi)组成(cheng)(cheng)三(san)(san)(san)(san)(san)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)网(锁(suo)),在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)上(shang)(shang)设置 性(xing)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志,以(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)便进行观(guan)(guan)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce),这(zhei)些(xie)(xie)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)统称(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)三(san)(san)(san)(san)(san)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。每(mei)个三(san)(san)(san)(san)(san)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)都(dou)(dou)要绘(hui)(hui)制(zhi)(zhi)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)之(zhi)(zhi)记(ji),通(tong)过测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)算得(de)三(san)(san)(san)(san)(san)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)成(cheng)(cheng)果,为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)国民经济(ji)建(jian)设和(he)(he)(he)(he)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)形(xing)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)绘(hui)(hui)提(ti)(ti)供(gong)(gong)(gong)基(ji)(ji)本的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)平(ping)面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi),为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)研(yan)究(jiu)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)球(qiu)(qiu)形(xing)状,地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)壳(qiao)形(xing)变,地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震预(yu)报、地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)球(qiu)(qiu)重(zhong)力(li)(li)场(chang),空间科学技(ji)术(shu)等(deng)提(ti)(ti)供(gong)(gong)(gong)必(bi)要的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)资(zi)料。   基(ji)(ji)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)精(jing)密的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)距(ju)(ju)离的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)仪(yi)(yi)器(qi)、技(ji)术(shu)和(he)(he)(he)(he)方法(fa)(fa),直接测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)一(yi)(yi)段(duan)或(huo)(huo)若干(gan)段(duan)直线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)长度(du)(du),做(zuo)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)起(qi)算数据或(huo)(huo)检(jian)校标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun),这(zhei)样(yang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)称(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)基(ji)(ji)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)。基(ji)(ji)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)端点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)通(tong)常(chang)(chang)(chang)设置 性(xing)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志表示其(qi)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)位(wei)(wei)(wei),这(zhei)样(yang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)称(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)基(ji)(ji)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。如,长度(du)(du)基(ji)(ji)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)检(jian)定(ding)(ding)(ding)场(chang)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)于(yu)(yu)(yu)检(jian)校电磁(ci)波、激光测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)距(ju)(ju)仪(yi)(yi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)野外场(chang)所。测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)距(ju)(ju)仪(yi)(yi)等(deng)仪(yi)(yi)器(qi)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)经过一(yi)(yi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)时(shi)(shi)间的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)使(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)后,其(qi)内部(bu)零件将(jiang)老化、衰变,并(bing)严重(zhong)影(ying)响(xiang)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)距(ju)(ju)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)精(jing)度(du)(du),通(tong)过基(ji)(ji)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)检(jian)定(ding)(ding)(ding)与真实长度(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)比对(dui),来(lai)查找改正(zheng)数并(bing)发现(xian)仪(yi)(yi)器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)问题,以(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)保(bao)(bao)证测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)精(jing)度(du)(du)。   导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)上(shang)(shang)选系列的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(通(tong)常(chang)(chang)(chang)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)上(shang)(shang)设置测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志),连(lian)成(cheng)(cheng)折线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),依次测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)各折线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)边的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)长度(du)(du)和(he)(he)(he)(he)转折角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao),这(zhei)条线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)称(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),这(zhei)些(xie)(xie)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)称(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。   重(zhong)力(li)(li)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)于(yu)(yu)(yu)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)重(zhong)力(li)(li)加速度(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。重(zhong)力(li)(li)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)球(qiu)(qiu)引力(li)(li)和(he)(he)(he)(he)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)球(qiu)(qiu)自转所产(chan)生的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)离心(xin)力(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)合力(li)(li)。重(zhong)力(li)(li)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)(cheng)果可以(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)将(jiang)各种(zhong)大地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)(cheng)果准(zhun)(zhun)确(que)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)归算到椭(tuo)球(qiu)(qiu)面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)上(shang)(shang)。重(zhong)力(li)(li)观(guan)(guan)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)值能准(zhun)(zhun)确(que)反演地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)壳(qiao)内部(bu)物质(zhi)(zhi)分(fen)布和(he)(he)(he)(he)移动状况,是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)石(shi)(shi)油(you)、矿产(chan)资(zi)源勘探(tan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要手(shou)段(duan),是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震预(yu)报的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)有效(xiao)手(shou)段(duan)之(zhi)(zhi)一(yi)(yi),同(tong)时(shi)(shi)对(dui)导(dao)(dao)弹、人造(zao)卫(wei)星(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发射、轨(gui)道(dao)计(ji)(ji)算提(ti)(ti)供(gong)(gong)(gong)必(bi)需的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)导(dao)(dao)航参数。   天(tian)(tian)文(wen)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)天(tian)(tian)文(wen)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)方法(fa)(fa)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)定(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)来(lai)通(tong)过观(guan)(guan)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)天(tian)(tian)体(ti)和(he)(he)(he)(he)进行相(xiang)应的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)理论(lun)推算,确(que)定(ding)(ding)(ding)观(guan)(guan)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)天(tian)(tian)文(wen)经度(du)(du)和(he)(he)(he)(he)纬度(du)(du)以(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)(yi)及某一(yi)(yi)方向的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)方位(wei)(wei)(wei)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)。   水(shui)准(zhun)(zhun)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)水(shui)准(zhun)(zhun)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)方法(fa)(fa)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)定(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。主要为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)形(xing)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)绘(hui)(hui)和(he)(he)(he)(he)水(shui)利,道(dao)路,矿山(shan)开(kai)采(cai),农业(ye)规划城市建(jian)设等(deng)工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)提(ti)(ti)供(gong)(gong)(gong) 的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi),同(tong)时(shi)(shi),它还是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)球(qiu)(qiu)科学研(yan)究(jiu)、地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)沉降,地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震监(jian)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)、大型建(jian)设工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)放样(yang)及地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)形(xing)变监(jian)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)等(deng)领域的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要技(ji)术(shu)手(shou)段(duan)。   全(quan)球(qiu)(qiu)卫(wei)星(xing)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)利用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)卫(wei)星(xing)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)技(ji)术(shu)所测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)制(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。   觇(chan)(chan)(chan)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)了方便点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)与点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)之(zhi)(zhi)间相(xiang)互观(guan)(guan)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce),在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)三(san)(san)(san)(san)(san)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)上(shang)(shang)建(jian)造(zao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de) 性(xing)支架。根据结(jie)构(gou)和(he)(he)(he)(he)材料不同(tong),觇(chan)(chan)(chan)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)可分(fen)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)串形(xing)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)、寻常(chang)(chang)(chang)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)、双锥(zhui)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)、复合标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)、钢(gang)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)、墩标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)等(deng)类型。用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)木质(zhi)(zhi)制(zhi)(zhi)作(zuo)(zuo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)觇(chan)(chan)(chan)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)称(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)木质(zhi)(zhi)觇(chan)(chan)(chan)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao),用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)钢(gang)材制(zhi)(zhi)作(zuo)(zuo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)觇(chan)(chan)(chan)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)称(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)钢(gang)制(zhi)(zhi)觇(chan)(chan)(chan)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)。   标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)石(shi)(shi)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)表示点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)位(wei)(wei)(wei)置的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de) 性(xing)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)志,一(yi)(yi)般用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)混(hun)凝土或(huo)(huo)花岗石(shi)(shi)、青石(shi)(shi)等(deng)坚(jian)硬石(shi)(shi)料制(zhi)(zhi)成(cheng)(cheng),埋(mai)于(yu)(yu)(yu)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)下或(huo)(huo)部(bu)分(fen)露出地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)。

2

2018-4

什么(me)是测绘?

   测(ce)(ce)(ce)绘(hui),是指对自然地(di)理(li)要(yao)(yao)(yao)素或者地(di)表(biao)人工(gong)设(she)施(shi)的(de)(de)形状(zhuang)、大小、空间位(wei)置(zhi)(zhi)及其属(shu)性等(deng)(deng)进行测(ce)(ce)(ce)定、采集。        测(ce)(ce)(ce)绘(hui)学(xue)(xue)研(yan)究测(ce)(ce)(ce)定和(he)推(tui)算地(di)面(mian)点的(de)(de)几(ji)(ji)何位(wei)置(zhi)(zhi)、地(di)球形状(zhuang)及地(di)球重(zhong)力场,据此测(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)地(di)球表(biao)面(mian)自然形状(zhuang)和(he)人工(gong)设(she)施(shi)的(de)(de)几(ji)(ji)何分(fen)(fen)布,并结合某(mou)些社(she)会信(xin)(xin)息和(he)自然信(xin)(xin)息的(de)(de)地(di)理(li)分(fen)(fen)布,编制(zhi)全球和(he)局部地(di)区各(ge)种比例尺(chi)的(de)(de)地(di)图(tu)(tu)和(he)专题地(di)图(tu)(tu)的(de)(de)理(li)论和(he)技术(shu)学(xue)(xue)科。又称测(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)学(xue)(xue)。它包括测(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)和(he)制(zhi)图(tu)(tu)两项主要(yao)(yao)(yao)内容。     测(ce)(ce)(ce)绘(hui)学(xue)(xue)在经济建设(she)和(he)国防(fang)建设(she)中有广泛的(de)(de)应(ying)用。在城乡建设(she)规划、国土(tu)资 源利(li)(li)用、环境(jing)保护等(deng)(deng)工(gong)作中,必(bi)须(xu)进行土(tu)地(di)测(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)和(he)测(ce)(ce)(ce)绘(hui)各(ge)种地(di)图(tu)(tu),供规划和(he)管(guan)理(li)使用。在地(di)质勘探(tan)、矿(kuang)产开发、水利(li)(li)、交通等(deng)(deng)建设(she)中,必(bi)须(xu)进行控制(zhi)测(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)、矿(kuang)山测(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)、路线测(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)和(he)绘(hui)制(zhi)地(di)形图(tu)(tu),供地(di)质普查和(he)各(ge)种建筑(zhu)物设(she)计施(shi)工(gong)用。在军(jun)(jun)事上需要(yao)(yao)(yao)军(jun)(jun)用地(di)图(tu)(tu),供行军(jun)(jun)、作战(zhan)用,还要(yao)(yao)(yao)有 的(de)(de)地(di)心(xin)坐标(biao)和(he)地(di)球重(zhong)力场数据,以确保远程武器(qi) 命中目标(biao)。

2

2018-4

工程测量用到的仪(yi)器有哪些?

摄(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)经纬(wei)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)  由(you)摄(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)机(ji)和(he)(he)(he)经纬(wei)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)组装(zhuang)而成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)供地(di)(di)面摄(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)野(ye)外作业(ye)用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)器。摄(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)机(ji)上(shang)有(you)(you)(you)物镜、暗箱、承片(pian)框(kuang)、检(jian)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)器。在(zai)承片(pian)框(kuang)上(shang)装(zhuang)有(you)(you)(you)精密的(de)(de)(de)框(kuang)标(biao)(biao)。经纬(wei)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)用(yong)(yong)来测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)定摄(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)站点(dian)(dian)和(he)(he)(he)检(jian)查点(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao),并(bing)确定主(zhu)光(guang)轴方向。主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)用(yong)(yong)于地(di)(di)形和(he)(he)(he)非地(di)(di)形摄(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)。 立(li)(li)体坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)  摄(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)中用(yong)(yong)于测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)定立(li)(li)体像(xiang)(xiang)对上(shang)同名点(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)像(xiang)(xiang)片(pian)平面直(zhi)角(jiao)坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)和(he)(he)(he)坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)差(cha)(视差(cha))的(de)(de)(de)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)器。由(you)观测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong),导(dao)轨系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong),像(xiang)(xiang)片(pian)盘,量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)和(he)(he)(he)照明设备等部分(fen)组成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)。有(you)(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)器有(you)(you)(you)自动(dong)(dong)坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)记(ji)录装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi),还(hai)可(ke)(ke)(ke)直(zhi)接(jie)获(huo)得计算(suan)机(ji)使(shi)用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)穿孔纸带(dai),或(huo)配有(you)(you)(you)自动(dong)(dong)拍摄(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)所量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)像(xiang)(xiang)点(dian)(dian)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)像(xiang)(xiang)的(de)(de)(de)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)。主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)用(yong)(yong)于解析空(kong)(kong)中三角(jiao)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)和(he)(he)(he)地(di)(di)面立(li)(li)体摄(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)加密像(xiang)(xiang)控(kong)(kong)点(dian)(dian)。 立(li)(li)体测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)图(tu)(tu)(tu)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)  航空(kong)(kong)摄(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)全能法测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)图(tu)(tu)(tu)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)器的(de)(de)(de)统(tong)(tong)称。是(shi)摄(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)内(nei)业(ye)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)图(tu)(tu)(tu)的(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)器。其(qi)结构原理是(shi)以(yi)(yi)摄(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)过程的(de)(de)(de)几何反(fan)转为(wei)(wei)基础。由(you)投(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)、量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)、观察系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)和(he)(he)(he)绘(hui)图(tu)(tu)(tu)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)组成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)。仪(yi)(yi)(yi)器按(an)投(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)方式分(fen)为(wei)(wei)光(guang)学(xue)(xue)投(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)、机(ji)械投(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)和(he)(he)(he)光(guang)学(xue)(xue)机(ji)械投(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)三种,按(an)使(shi)用(yong)(yong)范(fan)围(wei)分(fen),有(you)(you)(you)专为(wei)(wei)地(di)(di)面立(li)(li)体摄(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)经纬(wei)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)配套的(de)(de)(de)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)器,也(ye)有(you)(you)(you)既可(ke)(ke)(ke)供航测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)图(tu)(tu)(tu)又可(ke)(ke)(ke)供地(di)(di)面摄(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)图(tu)(tu)(tu)的(de)(de)(de)全能仪(yi)(yi)(yi)器;有(you)(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)限于测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)图(tu)(tu)(tu),有(you)(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)还(hai)能用(yong)(yong)于空(kong)(kong)中三角(jiao)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)。目前,发展的(de)(de)(de)趋(qu)势是(shi)主(zhu)机(ji)结构趋(qu)于简单,但(dan)增(zeng)加各种外围(wei)设备,如自动(dong)(dong)坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)记(ji)录装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi),正(zheng)射(she)投(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)、数(shu)控(kong)(kong)绘(hui)图(tu)(tu)(tu)桌等,以(yi)(yi)扩大使(shi)用(yong)(yong)范(fan)围(wei),提高工(gong)作效率(lv)。另(ling)外,解析测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)图(tu)(tu)(tu)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)也(ye)可(ke)(ke)(ke)归(gui)于全能法测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)图(tu)(tu)(tu)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)器,它由(you)带(dai)有(you)(you)(you)反(fan)馈系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)高精度立(li)(li)体坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)、电子(zi)计算(suan)机(ji)、数(shu)控(kong)(kong)绘(hui)图(tu)(tu)(tu)桌、控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)台(tai)及相(xiang)应的(de)(de)(de)软件组成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)。新型(xing)解析测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)图(tu)(tu)(tu)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)可(ke)(ke)(ke)以(yi)(yi)联机(ji)或(huo)脱(tuo)机(ji)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)图(tu)(tu)(tu),其(qi)人机(ji)对话的(de)(de)(de)数(shu)字(zi)摄(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)、信(xin)息库、图(tu)(tu)(tu)解系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)用(yong)(yong)于地(di)(di)籍测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)和(he)(he)(he)空(kong)(kong)中三角(jiao)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang),可(ke)(ke)(ke)获(huo)取数(shu)字(zi)地(di)(di)面模型(xing)、断面图(tu)(tu)(tu)、进(jin)行地(di)(di)面摄(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)以(yi)(yi)及修测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)更(geng)新地(di)(di)图(tu)(tu)(tu)等。 正(zheng)射(she)投(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)  将(jiang)具有(you)(you)(you)倾斜和(he)(he)(he)地(di)(di)面起伏的(de)(de)(de)中心投(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)像(xiang)(xiang)片(pian)变换成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)正(zheng)射(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)像(xiang)(xiang)图(tu)(tu)(tu)的(de)(de)(de)摄(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)测(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)(ce)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)专用(yong)(yong)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)器。正(zheng)射(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)像(xiang)(xiang)图(tu)(tu)(tu)具有(you)(you)(you)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)图(tu)(tu)(tu)快速、信(xin)息丰富、直(zhi)观易识(shi)等特点(dian)(dian),正(zheng)射(she)投(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)仪(yi)(yi)(yi)一(yi)般分(fen)光(guang)学(xue)(xue)投(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)和(he)(he)(he)电子(zi)投(tou)(tou)(tou)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)两(liang)类,可(ke)(ke)(ke)以(yi)(yi)联机(ji)或(huo)脱(tuo)机(ji)作业(ye),制(zhi)作正(zheng)射(she)影(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)像(xiang)(xiang)图(tu)(tu)(tu)。
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